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Programming And Troubleshooting Programmable Logic Controllers For ControlLogix 5000, SLC 500 And PLC 5 Controllers
Chapter 1 Introduction to PLCs
This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the history of PLC from their first use in industry to modern day. This chapter also explains the basic parts of a PLC in detail and how the basic PLC operates. Students will learn how a ladder logic program is created and how the PLC reads the status of inputs in a line of logic and determine if an output in a line of logic should be turned on or off. Students will also learn the function of status lights on input and output modules.
Chapter 2 Going Online To A PLC Using RSLinx and RSLogix Programs
This chapter explains in detail how to start RSLinx so that you can create drivers that allow connections between a laptop and a PLC. The chapter provides detail explanation of how to open RSLinx and create drivers for each type of PLC such MicroLogix 1000 connecting through RS232 connection, PLC 5 connecting through data highway DH+, SLC 500 connecting through RS232, DH 485, DH+ or Ethernet. You will also learn how to connect ControlLogix 5000 through RS232 or Ethernet. This chapter provides easy to understand information of €œhow to details€ to open the RSLogix program for each type of PLC and enough information that students can use at a later date when they are connecting to a PLC and going online through an RSLogix program.
Chapter 3 Numbering Systems Used In PLCs
This chapter explains the numbering systems used in PLCs in terms a new learner can easily understand. Each numbering system is explained in great detail with examples and where the numbering system is used. Students will learn about the decimal numbering system, the binary numbering system, the binary coded decimal (BCD) numbering system, the hexadecimal numbering system, the octal numbering system, the Real numbers with decimals and exponents. Students will also learn about engineering units and where they are used. This chapter provides examples of each type of numbering system as well as examples of typical conversions.
Chapter 4 Input And Output Instructions With Input and Output Modules And Racks
This chapter explains how input and output instructions are handled in a PLC and how input and output modules are mounted in a PLC rack. Students will learn how inputs and outputs are addressed and controlled by input and output instructions. They will also learn about the PLC scan cycle and how to interpret transition of contacts in a logic program and how power flow works to energize an output. They will learn how to enter normally open and normally closed contacts in series and parallel. Students will learn how parallel contacts are used to seal in a momentary pushbutton, and how latch and unlatch instructions will maintain their status with battery backed power. This chapter will also show students how one shot instructions work. Students will gain knowledge of two slot, single slot and half slot addressing the PLC 5. They will also learn about manual module keying and electronic module keying. Students will also learn about current sourcing and current sinking inputs and outputs and be introduced to analog modules.
Chapter 5 PLC 5 Addressing
This chapter shows students how inputs and outputs are addressed in a PLC 5 system. They will learn in depth details about 2 slot, single slot and half slot addressing. They will also learn about the 9 data files in a PLC 5 which include O0, I1, S2, B3, T4, C5, R6, N7, F8, and how to add extra file types to remaining data file locations. This chapter will also show students how to add tag names and rung comments to their program.
Chapter 6 SLC 500 And Micro 1000 Addressing
This chapter shows students how inputs and outputs are addressed in a SLC 500 system. The will learn how to address inputs and outputs in the SLC 500 system. They will also learn about the 9 data files in a SLC 500 which include O0, I1, S2, B3, T4, C5, R6, N7, F8, and how to add extra file types to remaining data file locations. Students will also learn about the MicroLogix 1000 which shares the RSLogix 500 software. This chapter will also show students how to add tag names and rung comments to their program
Chapter 7 ControlLogix 5000 Addressing
This chapter explains how to assign addresses to input and outputs in a ControlLogix 5000 system. They will learn about the memory structure of the ControlLogix 5000 systems and learn about the data types used in the ControlLogix 5000 system and how to create tags for local inputs and outputs. Students will also learn how to create controller tags and program tags and learn about global scoped tags. Students will also learn about the programs in the Main Task, Main Program and Sub Programs. Students will also learn about memory coils in a ControlLogix program.
Chapter 8 Data Types
This chapter explains types of data found In PLCs. Students will learn about how to address inputs and outputs in the PLC 5 and SLC 500 controllers. They will also learn about Status Files, Memory Coils in B files, Timers, Counters, Registers, Integers and Floating Point files. Students will also learn how to assign file types to files 10-999. They will also learn about the data types in the ControlLogix 5000 system and their controller tags and program tags. Students will learn how use these files when they are troubleshooting.
Chapter 9 Internal Control Relays Vs. Real Outputs
This chapter explains the difference between an internal control relay and the output instructions that are addressed to an output module. Students will learn how internal control relays are used in a program to indicate a condition has occurred and how its contacts are used to provide a sequence of operation for machine control. They will also learn how internal control relays are used to send and receive information to an HMI operator panel. Students will also learn how output instructions are used to control €œreal€ output devices such as solenoids, motor starters and other €œreal€ devices.
Chapter 10 Writing Your First PLC Program
This chapter shows students how to write their first PLC program. They will learn a procedure that they can use to write a complete PLC program or if they need to add one or two lines to an existing program. Students will learn how to identify the output for the system and then identify the conditions for each step of the program sequence. They will also learn how to lay out each rung of the program and how to enter in the contacts in series or parallel to create the logic. The end of this chapter shows students how to test the program rung by rung to ensure the logic is creating the sequence of operation.
Chapter 11 Ladder Logic Program Files and Data Files
This chapter explains how program files and data files are managed. Students will learn how the data in the PLC ladder logic program is also stored in the data files. Students will also learn how data moves between an HMI and a PLC so that operators can change data such as timer preset values and read data from values in PLCs. Data such as the status of inputs and outputs is passed between the data files and the ladder logic program. This chapter will also show how data moves between the tag data base and the logic program in a ControlLogix 5000 system.
Chapter 12 PLC Timers
This chapter explains how timer on delay, timer off delay and retentive timers operate. Students learn about the basic operation of each timer such as time base, preset time, accumulative time, and how to enable and reset each type of timer and learn how to enter timers and their information into a ladder logic program. Students will also learn how to assign an address to a timer and how to find timer values in the data base and tag data base. Students will also learn about the enable, timer timing and the done bit for each timer. Students will also learn how cascade timers to get larger time delay values and how to create an auto resetting timer. Information about programming a timer in a ControlLogix 5000 system is also provided so that students see how to create a timer tag, and how the only time base that is provided is 0.001 seconds. Students will also see how timers are interfaced with Human Machine Interface (HMI) systems where operators can adjust the amount of time delay or read the accumulative time from a timer. Students will also learn how to troubleshoot timers in programs and view timer data in the data base and tag data base.
Chapter 13 PLC Counters
This chapter explains how up counters and down counters operate. Students will learn about the basic operation of each counter and how to enter counter into a ladder logic program. Students will also learn how to assign an address to a counter and how to read counter data in the data base and tag data base. Cascading counters to count larger values is also covered and student will learn how to combine timers with counters to make a €œman readable€ timer which shows values in seconds, minutes, hours, days, days of the week and months. High speed counters are explained and how to program them and set them up. One shot instructions are also explained and examples are provided. This chapter will also show student how to troubleshoot problems with counters.
Chapter 14 Comparison Instructions
This chapter explains the operation comparison instructions such as equal, greater than, less than, less than or equal, and greater than or equal. Each of these instructions are explained and examples are provided. Students will learn that values can be compared to a fixed value, or a variable such as a timer, counter or math function. Students will also learn about the comparison instruction that allows the programmer to combine several instructions. The limit test instruction that compares a value to a high limit and a low limit to see if the value is inside the set points or outside the set points. The mask equal instruction introduces students to the concept of mask bits and provides examples of how to include or exclude individual bits of a word for a comparison instruction.
Chapter 15 Arithmetic and Math Instructions
This chapter explains mathematical instructions such as add, subtract, multiply and divide. Students will learn about rounding and truncation in division problems. The modulo instruction is also introduced to show students how to handle remainders in division problems. Students will also learn about the square root function, negate, and absolute functions and how they are used in a PLC program. Examples of simple formulas used to convert temperatures from Fahrenheit to centigrade are provided to show how math instructions are used in a PLC. Students will also learn about the different numbering systems used in PLCs such as binary numbers, BCD (binary coded decimal) numbers, and instructions such as TOD that coverts a number to BCD and the FRD that converts a number from BCD. Advanced trigonometric functions are explained and examples of their use are provided. These instructions are provided for the PLC 5, SLC 500 and ControlLogix 5000 systems. Conversion functions in the ControlLogix 5000 are explained and examples for converting radians to degrees are provided.
Chapter 16 Move And Logic Instruction
This chapter explains the move and logical instruction and how they are used in automation control system. Students learn how the move instructions operate and how move with mask instruction operates. Data types used with the move instruction are also presented. Students will learn how a mask can be used to include or exclude bits in a word during a move instruction. And, OR, Exclusive OR and the Not instruction are explained and examples of how they are entered in a program are provided. The swap byte instruction and the bit field distributer are also explained.
Chapter 17 File Instructions
This chapter explains files and arrays and the instructions that the PLC program uses to complete these functions. Students will learn how to create a single file element and an array in a PLC 5, SLC 500 and ControlLogix 5000 data base. The file arithmetic logic (FAL) instructions are introduced to show how file to word, file to file and word to file functions operate. Students will learn how control words in each system are used to provide a pointer and advance the FAL instruction from step to step. Students will also learn how to set the mode for an FAL to move a single word, multiple words or all words in array during one scan cycle. This chapter will also explain file search and compare, file copy, file fill, file average, and file sort instructions and how they are used in a ladder logic program. Students will also learn about shift registers, bit shift instructions, first in first out (FIFO), and last in first out (LIFO) instructions.
Chapter 18 Program Control Instructions
This chapter explains program control instructions such as master control reset, jump and label instruction, jump to subroutines and subprograms. Students will learn why subprograms are used in PLC programs and how the controller functions as it moves from program to program. Students will learn how to pass parameters between programs as the controller moves from program to program. Students will learn about program control in PLC 5, SLC 500 and ControlLogix 5000 systems. Students will also learn about immediate input and immediate output instructions and how they are used to control and automation system.
Chapter 19 Direct And Indirect Addressing
This chapter will explain direct, indirect and indexed addressing. This chapter will explain why direct, indirect and indexed addressing are used and examples of each are provided and explained thoroughly. This is one of the most difficult processes to understand and this chapter explains how each type of addressing is used in the PLC 5, SLC 500 and the ControlLogix 5000 system. Student will also learn how troubleshoot automation systems that use direct, indirect or indexed addressing.
Chapter 20 Sequencer Instructions
This chapter explains sequencer input, and sequencer output instructions. Students will learn how these instructions control the sequence of outputs based on the status of inputs. Examples of sequencers used in PLC 5, SLC 500 and ControlLogix 5000 systems to control automation systems are provided as well. Students will also learn how to use a mask with the sequencer instruction to include or exclude individual bits in input and output words.
Chapter 21 Analog And PID Control
This chapter will explain analog systems and PID control to students. Students will learn about analog inputs and analog outputs used with PLC systems. Students will learn about analog voltage and analog current (milliamp) systems that are used in PLCs. Examples of analog signals and analog input and output devices are explained in this chapter. Students will learn about how to scale and calibrate analog values and how engineering units are assigned. This chapter explains where to find analog values in the PLC 5, SLC 500 and the ControlLogix 5000 system. Block transfer read and write instructions are explained for accessing values from analog input and output modules in the PLC 5.
The second part of this chapter explains PID loop instructions. Students will learn terms such as set point, process variable, error, summing junction, controller and output that are used to explain PID loop operation. Students will learn how to enter and execute PID loops in the PLC 5, SLC 500 and the ControlLogix 5000 system. They will also learn how to open the loop table and change set points, and view process variable, output and error values. After students learn to operate PID instructions in auto and manual modes, they will learn how to tune a loop and make changes to proportional (gain), integral (reset) and derivative (rate) in the loop the improve its operational response. Students will also learn about process alarms and deviation alarms. The final part of this chapter shows students how to troubleshoot a PID loop.